The US Constitution includes some general provisions on
the franchise. It sets forth certain requirements for candidates
running for a post of a president, vice-president, senator or
member of the House of Representatives. Requirements usually
concern age, residence and citizenship. The candidates who
meet all these requirements are considered eligible for office.
A residence qualification requires a permanent residence
of an individual in order to get the right to vote. The duration
of the residence qualification is, in general, a few months
though it may substantially vary from state to state.
Besides, some states have the so-called literacy qualification
(the voter should be able to read and speak English, he (she)
must know how to interpret the US Constitution, etc.).
And at last it should be mentioned that in some states a
poll tax is levied upon everyone who votes and this certainly
discourages poor citizens and Negroes from voting. In this
context, it is not surprising that not all the Americans
participate in elections, including congressional or presidential
The voters are registered by clerks of counties or towns
and by local election commissions. When registering, the voter
must produce an identification card. This is done to prevent
The administration of elections is vested in an election
commission which ordinarily is composed of two commissioners,
one representing each of the major parties, and a third ex
officio member, usually a sheriff, a county judge, or a clerk.
Prior to holding primary or general election, the commission
appoints election officers for each precinct and also arranges
for polling places. After the ballots have been cast, they are
counted and the results obtained are tabulated and returned
to the election commission which officially counts the precinct
1. What does the US Constitution set forth?
2. What do requirements usually concern?
3. Who is considered eligible for office?
4. What does a residence qualification require?
5. What is meant by literacy qualification?
6. What is levied upon everyone who votes?
7. Who are the voters registered by?
8. What is done to prevent fraud?
9. Who is the administration of elections vested in?
10. What does the election commission do?
general provisions <— общие положения
on the franchise — по избирательному праву
residence qualification — ценз оседлости
clerk — чиновник
identification card — удостоверение личности
polling place, the polls — место голосования
salary — зарплата (оклад)