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Sergei Pavlovich Korolyov

   Academician S. P. Korolyov is a famous scientist and founder of practical cosmonautics. He was the chief constructor of the first Earth sputniks and spaceships.
   S. P. Korolyov was born in 1906 in the small Ukrainian town of Zhitomir into a family of teachers. He spent his childhood with his grandparents in the town of Nezhin where he studied at home with a teacher. In 1922, at the age of 15, Sergei Korolyov began to study at a vocational building school in Odessa, where he received his secondary education and became a builder.
   He was interested in mathematics, literature and he read a great deal. All his life he loved music.
   In 1923 Sergei Korolyov joined a Glider Pilots' Club, where he learned to construct gliders and to fly them. In 1925 Korolyov entered the Kiev Polytechnical Institute where he studied aviation and mathematics, but in the evening he had to work for money: he was a building worker, he worked at the post-office and he played very small roles in films.
   After two years in Kiev Korolyov came to Moscow. In the day-time he worked at an aeroplane factory and in the evening he studied at the Moscow Higher Technical School. After lectures he worked at home on the design of a new glider. At the Moscow Higher Technical School Korolyov learned about К. Е. Tsiolkovsky's ideas on space travell and about his rocket.
   In 1930 S. P. Korolyov graduated from the Moscow Higher Technical School and became an aviation engineer. At the same time he finished the Moscow Pilot School. During the Great Patriotic War S. P. Korolyov constructed a jet engine for aeroplanes and rockets. On October 4, 1957 the first man-made sputnik of the Earth was launched into space. It was the result of thirty years hard work and Chief Constructor was S. P. Korolyov. Then dogs were sent into space and only after a lot of experiments the first cosmonaut in the world — Y. A. Gagarin launched into space in the spaceship "Vostok" on April 12, 1961.
   After this there were many other longer and more difficult flights. Then followed rockets to the Moon, Mars and Venus.
   S. P. Korolyov died in 1966. For his brilliant work in the name of science and progress he was awarded two Gold Stars of the Hero of Socialist Labour.
   People will always remember the names of those who opened a new era in the conquest of outer space, and the name of S. P. Korolyov is one of them.
   1. When was S. P. Korolyov born?
   2. Where did S. P. Korolyov begin to study?
   3. What was he interested in?
   4. What did he learn in 1923 when he joined a Glyder Pilots' Club?
   5. What did he study in Kiev Polytechnical Institute?
   6. When did he come to Moscow?
   7. When was the first man-made sputnik of the Earth launched into space?
   8. Who was the first cosmonaut in the world?
   glider — планер
   to be launched — быть запущенным
   jet — реактивный
   engine — двигатель, мотор
   to design — проектировать
   conquest — завоевание