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The Discovery of America(1)

   America was founded by Columbus in 1492. Columbus fled to this country because of persecution by Ferdinand and Isabella, who refused to believe the world was round. Before Columbus reached America he cried "Ceylon! Ceylon!" because he wanted to see India. When he arrived, he cried again. This time he cried "I have found it!"
   Columbus was mistaken in thinking he had reached India. There is still a great deal of confusion about the East and the West. As Columbus discovered, if you go west long enough you find yourself in the east and vice versa. In the New World most of the eastern half of the country is called the Middle West although it is known as the East by those who live in the Far West.
   Columbus, who was as confused as anybody who has been at sea for a long time, called the first people he saw "Indians". Accompanied by his followers, Columbus made several other voyages in search of India. Try as he might, however, he kept discovering America and finally returned to Spain to die.
   1. Who discovered America?
   2. Did Columbus intend to reach America or India?
   3. Is there any confusion about the East and the West?
   4 How did Columbus call first people in America?
   5. Did he make other voyages in search of India?
   persecution — преследование
   to reach — достигать
   confusion — путаница
   voyage — путешествие

The Discovery of America(2)

   Christopher Columbus discovered America in 1492. He was born in Italy. His father and both grandfathers were cloth makers. Columbus was a seaman and made many sea voyages.
   Most people in Columbus's days thought that the earth was flat and they did not believe that beyond the Atlantic Ocean lay India. In 1492 the King and the Queen of Spain gave him money to go to India. He decided to sail west as he was sure that our planet was round. There were 3 caravels: the Santa Maria, the Nina and the Pinta. After sailing 4000 miles he reached some land. The crew saw something like a white cliff and cried out: "Tierra! Tierra!". Columbus thought 'that it must be India but it was not. It was a new land — a new continent. It was America. Columbus named the land they had reached San Salvador ("Holy Saviour"). People began to speak about the land as "The new World".
   European people came to the New World for many reasons. Some hoped to find gold and silver. Priests and missionaries came to bring the Christian religion to the Indians. Among those who came for freedom was a small group of English people called Pilgrims. They wanted to start a new life and to have no religious problems they had in England. In 1620 on the ship "Mayflower" they landed in the north-east of America. They set up a colony and called that part of the country "New England".
   1. Who discovered America?
   2. King and Queen of what country gave Columbus money for voyage?
   3. How many caravelas were there?
   4. How did Columbus name the land he had reached?
   5. What reasons did European come to New Land for?
   6. What do you know about Pilgrims?